On Jan. 8, 2001, scientists at Advanced Cell Tec­hnology, Inc., announced the birth of the first ­clone of an endangered animal, a baby bull gaur (a large wild ox from India and southeast Asia) named Noah. Although Noah died of an infection unrelated to the procedure, the experiment demonstrated that it is possible to save endangered species through cloning.

1 – Cloning : this refers to the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means. It has been used for many years to produce plants (even growing a plant from a cutting is a type of cloning). Animal cloning has been the su­bject of scientific experiments for years, but took little attention until the birth of the first cloned mammal in 1996, a sheep named Dolly. Since Dolly, several scientists have cloned other animals, including cows and mice. The recent success in cloning animals has caused strong debates between scientists, politicians and the general public about the use and morality of cloning plants, animals and possibly humans.

2 – Biotechnology : this word has a lot of meanings , for example ; developing new types of animals or making unlimited sources of human therapeutic drugs (medicines) . Some scientists still study  the possibility of growing crops that are more nutritious and naturally pest-resistant to feed a rapidly growing world population. This question elicits almost as many first-thought responses as there are people to whom the question can be posed. Fruits grown biotechnologically are bigger in size and look more beautiful but they can be tasteless or disgusting . However, the principal use of the term “biotechnology” refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the human environment. Prehistoric biotechnologists did this as they used yeast cells to raise bread dough and to ferment alcoholic beverages, and bacterial cells to make cheeses and yogurts and as they bred their strong, productive animals to make even stronger and more productive offspring. Therefore , we understand that this science was used by ancient populations in their  everyday lives and it’s ot modern as many people think .

Pamela Peters : A Guide To Genetic Engineering. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Inc., 1993.